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19th Century Spanish Leaders

19th Century Spanish Leaders in the Philippines

MARIANO FERNANDEZ DE FOLGUERAS—Native of Galicia; becomes governor (ad interim), August 7, 1806; insurrection in Ilocos, 1807; English commercial house given permission to establish itself in the islands, 1809; term as governor, August 7, 1806-March 4, 1810.

MANUEL GONZALEZ DE AGUILAR—Knight of the Order of Santiago, and military officer; arrives at Manila, March 4, 1810; in accordance with royal decrees of January 29 and February 14, 1810, permitting deputies from the colonies to be chosen for the Spanish Cortes, Philippine deputies are present in that of September 24, 1810; proposes cessation of Acapulco ship, 1810; insurrection (anti-friar and to establish new religion) in Ilocos, 1811; first newspaper established in Philippines, August 8, 1811; Spanish constitution of 1812 publicly received in Manila, April 17, 1813; Aguilar’s term marked by various commercial movements; term as governor, March 4, 1810-September 4, 1813.

JOSÉ GARDOQUI JARAVEITIA—Naval officer; arrives at Manila, September 4, 1813; cessation of Acapulco ship; term marked by various governmental changes in consequence of decrees issued by Fernando VII, by certain commercial changes, and troubles with Moros; death, December 9, 1816; term as governor, September 4, 1813-December 9, 1816.

MARIANO FERNANDEZ DE FOLGUERAS—Becomes governor (ad interim) for the second time, December 10, 1816; province of Ilocos Norte created, February 2, 1818; orders reëstablishment of Real Sociedad Ecónomica de Filipinas (Royal Economic Association of Filipinas”), December 17, 1819; massacre of foreigners by natives, October 9-10, 1820; establishment of three short-lived newspapers in 1821; term marked by closer connection with Spain; term as governor, December 10, 1816-0ctober 30, 1822; assassinated in insurrection of Spanish-Americans and Filipinos, 1823.

JUAN ANTONIO MARTÍNEZ—Native of Madrid, and mariscal-de-campo; arrives at Manila, October 30, 1822; accompanied by many new officials from Spain; insurrection of Filipinos and Spanish-Americans in consequence; newspaper founded by El Sociedad de Amigos del Pais, 1724; reactionary movements of Spain affect Philippines; term as governor, October 30, 1822-October 14, 1825; death, at sea while on way to Spain.

MARINAO RICAFORT PALACÍN Y ARARCA—Native of Murcia, mariscal-de-campo, and perpetual ambassador of the city of Paz, Peru; arrives at Manila, October 14, 1825; forbids foreigners to sell goods at retail, February 4, 1828; makes laws in many different directions; gives instructions for government of Mariana Islands, December 17, 1828; foundation of Dominican college in Ocaña, Spain, as a feeder for China and the Philippines, May 2, 1830 (approved, August 15, 1831); returns to Spain, December 23, 1830; term as governor, October 14, 1825-December 23, 1830.

PASCUAL ENRILE Y ALCEDO—Native of Cadiz, military officer and segundo cabo of the Philippines; becomes governor, December 23, 1830; expedition to Igorrotes, 1831-1832; lottery established, July 3, 1833; royal tribunal of commerce created in Manila, January 1, 1834; Guia de Forasteros (Guide book for strangers) first printed, 1834; Compañía de Filipinas dissolved by royal order of September 6, 1834; royal order of November 3, 1834, substitutes segundo cabo in office of governor, in case of latter’s absence, sickness, or death; many useful laws passed and islands prosper during this term; term as governor, December 23, 1830-March 1, 1835.

GABRIEL DE TORRES—Native of Valladolid province, and segundo cabo of the Philippines; becomes governor, March 1, 1835; death, April 23, 1835 ; term as governor, March 1, 1835-April 23, 1835.

JUAN CRÁMER (Montero y Vidal) Juaquin de Crame (Mas, and Buzeta and Bravo)—Native of Cataluña; becomes governor (ad interim) as office of segundo cabo vacant, April 23, 1835; term as governor, April 23, 1835-September 9, 1835.

PEDRO ANTONIO SALAZAR CASTILLO Y VARONA—Native of Ibrillos (Rioja), and military officer; comes to Manila with appointment as segundo cabo; becomes governor (ad interim), September 9, 1835; royal council of Spain and the Indies abolished by royal decree, September 28, 1836; by the promulgation in Madrid (June 18, 1837) of the political constitution of the Spanish monarchy, the Philippines lose their representation in the Cortés; term as governor, September 9, 1835-August 27, 1837.

ANDRÉS GARCÍA CAMBA—Knight of the Order of Santiago, and mariscal-de-campo; captured with royal army at battle of Ayacucho, Peru, December 9, 1824; residence in Manila April, 1825-March, 1835; receives royal approbation to appointment as commander-in-chief of military forces at Manila, May 22, 1826; appointed director of La Sociedad Económica de Amigos del Pais; elected to represent the Philippines in Spanish Cortés, 1834; appointed secretary of war (ad interim), August 15, 1836; elected to Cortés to represent Lugo (but did not sit), October 2, 1836; arrives at Manila, August 24, 1837; takes charge of government, August 27, 1837; given name of “El Deseado” (“the desired”); is opposed politically and by the ecclesiastics; term as governor, August 27, 1837-December 29, 1838; after return to Spain, elected senator for Valencia; minister of the marine, commerce, and government of the colonies, May 21, 1841-May 25, 1842.

LUIS LARDIZÁBAL—Arrives at Manila, December 26, 1838; enters upon government, December 29 (Montero y Vidal) or 30 (Mas), 1838; first issue of weekly paper, Precios corrientes de Manila (“Prices current in Manila”) in Spanish and English, July 6, 1839; province of Nueva Vizcaya created, 1839; project for monument to Magalhães on the islet of Mactan submitted to supreme government, 1840; solicits recall; term as governor, December 29, 1838-February, 1841; death at sea on return voyage to Spain.

MARCELINO DE ORAÁ LECUMBERRI—Native of Navarra, and lieutenant-general; arrives at Manila, February, 1841; insurrections among Tagáls, the second of native soldiers, 1841 and 1843; newspaper Seminario filipino first published, 1843; term as governor, February, 1841-June 17, 1843.

FRANCISCO DE PAULA ALCALÁ DE LA TORRE—Native of Extremadura, and lieutenant-general; becomes governor, June 17 (Buzeta and Bravo say 12), 1843; Isabel II declared of age and received as queen of Spain, December 1, 1843; Alcalá makes laws regulating commerce, the army, and welfare of the islands; term as governor, June 17, 1843-July 16, 1844.

NARCISO CLAVERÍA Y ZALDUA—Native of Gerona (but of Biscayan origin), and lieutenant-general; becomes governor, July 16, 1844; calendar in Philippines corrected, 1844; makes reforms in office of alcalde-mayor, 1844; founds casino called “Sociedad de Recreo” (“Recreation Association”), October 31, 1844; his proposal to establish military library approved, February 15, 1846; first steam war-vessels in the Philippines bought (in London), 1848; conquest of island of Balanguingui in Sulu Archipelago against the Moros, 1848, for which he receives the titles of count of Manila and viscount of Clavería, and the cross of San Fernando, besides other rewards; regular clergy forbidden to alienate property, January 15, 1849; surnames given to natives, November 11, 1849; his term marked by intense activity, and the number of papers founded, among them being the first daily of Manila, La Esperanza (December 1, 1846), and Diario de Manila (1848); asks retirement and returns to Spain, December 26, 1849; term as governor, July 16, 1844-December 26, 1849

ANTONIO MARÍA BLANCO—Segundo cabo; becomes governor (ad interim), December 26, 1849; monthly lottery established in Manila, January 29, 1850; creates province of Unión, March 2, 1850; term as governor, December 26, 1849-June 29, 1850.

ANTONIO DE URBISTONDO Y EGUÍA—Native of San Sebastián, and marquis of Solana; formerly a Carlist; becomes governor June 29, 1850; leper hospital founded in Cebú, 1850; bank Español-Filipino established, August 1, 1851, and begins operations, 1852; expedition to and conquest of Joló, capital of Moroland, 1851; term characterized by many administrative laws; solicits retirement; term as governor, July 29, 1850-December 20, 1853; appointed minister of war by royal decree, October 12, 1856.

RAMON MONTERO Y BLANDINO—Segundo cabo of the Philippines; becomes governor (ad interim), December 20, 1853; term as governor, December 20, 1853-February 2, 1854.

MANUEL PAVÍA Y LAY—Marquis de Novaliches, lieutenant-general, head of department of infantry; appointed without previous consultation, September, 1853; arrives at Manila, February 2, 1854; reequips army; mutiny of portion of native troops suppressed; monthly mail between Manila and Hongkong established; leaves Manila, October 28, after thanking religious orders (October 27) for coöperation; term as governor, February 2-October 28, 1854.

RAMON MONTERO Y BLANDINO—Becomes governor (ad interim) for the second time, October 28, 1854; term as governor, October 28-November 20, 1854.

MANUEL CRESPO Y CEBRIÁN—Native of Extremadura, and formerly segundo cabo of the Philippines; becomes governor, November 20, 1854; expedition against Igorrotes, December, 1855-February, 1856; resigns December 5, 1856; term as governor, November 20, 1854-December 5, 1856.

RAMON MONTERO Y BLANDINO—Becomes governor (ad interim), for the third time, December 5, 1856; term as governor, December 5, 1856-March 9, 1857.

FERNANDO NORZAGARAY Y ESCUDERO—Native of San Sebastian, and lieutenant-general; enters upon office, March 9, 1857; authorizes establishments of houses of exchange, June 18, 1857; sends expedition to Cochinchina to aid French, 1858; reforms in local administration ordered, August 30, 1858; infantry reorganized by order of September 23, 1859; first Jesuit mission after reinstatement of order, reaches Philippines in middle of 1859; several papers founded during his term; encourages agriculture; solicits recall because of ill-health; term as governor, March 9, 1857-January 12, 1860.

RAMON MARÍA SOLANO Y LLANDERAL—Native of Valencia, mariscal-de-campo, and segundo cabo of Philippines; becomes governor (ad interim), January 12, 1860; pawnshop authorized in Manila, January 18; issues decree for civil government of province of Manila, January 31; functions of bank Español-Filipino extended, February 16; Jagor travels through the Bisayas; term as governor January 12-August 29, 1860; death from fever (with rumor in Manila of poisoning), August 30.

JUAN HERRERA DÁVILA—Sub-inspector of artillery; becomes governor (ad interim), August 29, 1860; civil administration of provinces of the colonies organized, and Audiencia in Manila reformed, July 9, 1860; printing of Coleccion de autos acordados authorized, January 10, 1861; regularly appointed governor, general of marine Mac-Crohon, dies in Red Sea while on way to Philippines; term as governor, August 29, 1860-February 2, 1861.

JOSÉ LEMERY É IBARROLA NEY Y GONZÁLEZ—Senator of the kingdom; becomes governor, February 2, 1861; politico-military governments installed in Bisayas and Mindanao, April 1, 1861; Jesuits given Mindanao as mission field, and opposed by Recollects; operations against Moros; delivers command to segundo cabo, July 7, 1862; term as governor, February 2, 1861-July 7, 1862.

SALVADOR VALDÉS—Segundo cabo; becomes governor (ad interim), July 7,1862; term as governor, July 7-9, 1862.

RAFAEL DE ECHAGUE Y BERMINGHAN—Native of San Sebastián, lieutenant-general, and governor at Puerto Rico; arrives at Manila, July 9, 1862; various insurrections, 1863; earthquake, June 3, 1863; creation of ministry of colonies, 1863; normal school established, January 23, 1865; term marked by various calamities; term as governor, July 9, 1862-March 24, 1865.

JOAQUIN DEL SOLAR É IBÁÑEZ—Segundo cabo of the Philippines; becomes governor (ad interim), March 24, 1865; reforms in various branches of government, 1865; term as governor, March 24, 1865-April 25, 1865.

JUAN DE LARA É IRIGOYEN—Native of Navarra, lieutenant-general, and ex-minister of war; assumes office, April 25, 1865; Antonio Cánovas del Castillo appointed minister of the colonies, July 3, 1865; erection of bishopric of Jaro, by bull of Pius IX, 1865; establishment of Jesuit institution Ateneo Municipal at Manila, 1865; recalled for corruption of government; term as governor, April 25, 1865-July 13, 1866.

JOSÉ LAUREANO DE SANZ Y POSSE—Mariscal-de-campo, and segundo cabo elect because of former incumbent of that office having left islands with Lara; term as governor (ad interim), July 13-September 21, 1866.

ANTONIO OSORIO—Naval officer; becomes governor (ad interim), September 21, 1866; term as governor, September 21-September 27, 1866.

JOAQUIN DEL SOLAR—Becomes governor (ad interim), for the second time, September 27, 1866; term as governor, September 27-October 26, 1866.

JOSÉ DE LA GÁNDARA Y NAVARRO—Lieutenant-general; becomes governor, October 26, 1866; uniform monetary system adopted; reforms primary education; 1867-1868; resigns office; term as governor, October 26, 1866-June 7, 1869.

MANUEL MALDONADO—Segundo cabo of islands; becomes governor (ad interim), June 7, 1869; term as governor, June 7-June 23, 1869.

CÁRLOS MARÍA DE LA TORRE Y NAVA CERRADA—Native of Cuenca, and lieutenant-general; becomes governor, June 23, 1869; constitution of 1869 sworn to, September 21, 1869; projects monument to Anda y Salazar; question of removing the monopoly on tobacco; guardia civil created; radical in government; term as governor, June 23, 1869-April 4, 1871.

RAFAEL DE IZQUIERDO Y GUTIERREZ—Native of Santander, and lieutenant-general; becomes governor, April 4, 1871; insurrections in Cavite and Zamboanga, 1872; reforms in army; opening of steamship line and telegraph lines; governor resigns because of ill-health; term as governor, April 4, 1871-January 8, 1873.

MANUEL MAC-CROHON—Naval officer, becomes governor (ad interim), as office of segundo cabo vacant, January 8, 1873; term as governor, January 8-24 (?) , 1873.

JUAN ALAMINOS Y PE VIVAR—Becomes governor, January 24 (?), 1873; conflict with archbishop and other ecclesiastics; steamship line established between Manila and Spain; various ports opened for commerce; term as governor, January 24 (?), 1873-March 17, 1874.

MANUEL BLANCO VALDERRAMA—Becomes governor (ad interim), March 17, 1874; repulse of Joloans; hands over government to regularly appointed governor, June 18, 1874.

JOSÉ MALCAMPO Y MONJE—Marques de San Rafael and rear-admiral; becomes governor, June 18, 1874; conquest of Joló, 1876; given title of count of Mindanao, December 19, 1876; mutiny of artillerymen; term as governor, June 18, 1874-February 28, 1877; given titles of count of Joló and viscount of Mindanao, July 20, 1877.

DOMINGO MORIONES Y MURILLO—Marquis of Oroquieta, and lieutenant-general; becomes governor, February 28, 1877; takes drastic measures against mutinous artillery regiment, 1877; prevents sale of tobacco monopoly, 1877; constructs Manila waterworks, 1878; term as governor, February 28, 1877-March 18 or 20, 1880.

RAFAEL RODRÍGUEZ ARIAS—Naval officer; becomes governor (ad interim), March 18 or 20, 1880; term as governor, March 18-April 15, 1880.

FERNANDO PRIMO DE RIVERA—Marquis of Estella; becomes governor, April 15, 1880; cable opened between Luzón and Spain, 1880; royal decree orders repeal of tobacco monopoly, 1881; term marked by corruption in public offices; term as governor, April 15, 1880-March 10, 1883.

EMILIO MOLÍNS—Segundo cabo of Philippines; governor (ad interim), March 10-April 7, 1883.

JOAQUÍN JOVELLAR—General; becomes governor, April 7, 1883; decrease of annual period of personal services from forty to fifteen days, and creation of provincial tax, 1883; plan for railroads in Luzón approved, 1883; visits southern islands, 1884; tribute abolished and tax of cédula personal substituted, 1884; Jesuit observatory at Manila declared official, 1884.; term as governor, April 7, 1883-April 1, 1885.

EMILIO MOLÍNS—Becomes governor (ad interim), for second time, and rules three days, April 1-4, 1885.

EMILIO TERRERO Y PERINAT—Lieutenant-general becomes governor, April 4., 1885; leads expedition in person against Moros, 1885; dispute between Spain and Germany as to ownership of Carolinas, 1885 ; term as governor, April 4, 1885-1888.

ANTONIO MOLTO—Segundo cabo, term as governor (ad interim), 1888.

FEDERICO LOBATON—Naval officer; term as governor (ad interim), only one day in 1888.

March 1, 1888, a petition signed by eight hundred and ten natives and mestizos demands immediate expulsion of the friars of the religious orders and of the archbishop, the secularization of benefices, and the confiscation of the estates of Augustinians and Dominicans.

VALERIANO WÉYLER—Native of Majorca, marquis of Tenerife, and son of a German doctor; becomes governor, 1888; said to have purchased office from minister’s wife; school of agriculture established in Manila, 1889; practical school of arts and trades established, 1890; telephone system established in Philippines, 1890; Dominican secondary school established in Dagupan, 1891; said to have received money from religious orders for armed support against their tenants; term as governor, 1888-1891; later minister of war at Madrid.

EULOGIO DESPUJOL—Native of Cataluña, and count of Caspe; becomes governor, 1891; Liga filipina (Philippine League) founded in Manila by Rizal, 1892; introduces many reforms; popular with natives; arouses wrath of religious orders, who are said to have paid $100,000 for his dismissal; term as governor, 1891-1893.

FEDERICO OCHANDO —Governor (ad interim), 1893.

RAMON BLANCO—Becomes governor, 1893; electric light established in Manila, 1895; formation of Katipunan society; outbreak of insurrection, August 30, 1896; Blanco opposed by ecclesiastics; term as governor, 1893-December 9 (date of royal decree removing him), 1896.

CAMILO POLAVIEJA—General; becomes governor, December 13, 1896 (Algué); Rizal executed, December 30, 1896; Tagál republic proclaimed, October, 1896; insurrection spreads; operations against insurgents by General Lachambre, 1897; Polavieja issues amnesty proclamation, January 11, 1897; efficient service of loyal Filipino troops; term as governor, December 13, 1896-April 15, 1897.

JOSÉ DE LACHAMBRE—General; governor (ad interim), April 15-23, 1897.

FERNANDO PRIMO DE RIVERA—Becomes governor for the second time, April 23, 1897; insurgents scattered, and more than thirty thousand natives said to have been killed in one province; pact of Biak-na-bato signed, December 14, 1897; re-occurrence of insurrections in Luzón, 1898; term as governor, April 23, 1897-April 11, 1898.

BASILIO AUGUSTIN—Becomes governor, April 11, 1898; Spain declares war on U.S., April 23, 1898; U.S. declares war on Spain, April 25, 1898; U.S. Admiral Dewey’s naval victory, May 1, 1898.

FERMÍN JÁUDENS—Becomes governor (ad interim), 1898; Spain surrenders, August 9, 1898; peace preliminaries, surrender of Manila, and entrance of Americans (August 13) into Manila.

FRANCISCO RIZZO—General; becomes governor (ad interim), 1898.

DIEGO DE LOS RÍOS—Becomes governor, with new capital at Iloílo, 1898; Treaty of Paris signed, December 10, 1898, handing sovereignty over the Philippines to the United States for $20 million; term as governor, after August 13, 1898-December 10, 1898; leaves Manila, January 1, 1899. 94 Spanish rule ends.


94 The following authorities were used in compiling the above list of governors: Morga, Sucesos de las Islas Filipinas (Mexico, 1609); Argensola, Conquistas de las Malucas (Madrid, 1609); Colin, Labor evangelica (Madrid, 1663)—who mentions as authorities the authors Morga, Grijalva, and Chirino; San Antonio, Chronicas, parte primera (Manila, 1738); Murillo Velarde, Historia (Manila, 1749); Delgado, Historia general (Manila, 1892); La Concepción, Historia general (Sampaloc, 1788-1792); Zúñiga, Historia de las islas Filipinas (Sampaloc, 1803), and Estadismo (Retana’s ed., Madrid, 1893); Mas, Informe de las Islas Filipinas (Madrid, 1843); Buzeta and Bravo, Diccionario (Madrid, 1851); Montero y Vidal, Historia general (Madrid, 1887), and Historia de la pirateria (Madrid, 1888); Combés, Historia de Mindanao y Joló (Retana’s ed., Madrid, 1897); Catálogo de la exposición general de las Islas Filipinas (Madrid, 1887); Algué, Archipiélago Filipino (Washington, 1900); Sawyer, Inhabitants of the Philippines (New York, 1900) ; Calkins, “Filipino Insurrection of 1896″ in Harper’s Monthly, vol. xcix, pp. 469-483; and various documents already published in this series.

Church-State relations in the Philippines during the Spanish colonial period: A Sourcebook
by: PhilippineHistory.net